Chapter Two Thesis The Effectiveness Of Using Rehearsal Strategy In Teaching Students Vocabulary
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
- Definition of Vocabulary
Vocabulary is very important as the one of linguistic aspects and it is considered as the most important aspect in mastering a language. It is a basic power of language acquisition. It means that language is an understanding of word meaning in vocabulary.
There are some definitions of vocabulary given by some experts, they are: Hornby states that vocabulary is a total number of words that make up a language. It means that each person has not just one word but rather more than several words. We must have more vocabularies since a language consist of the words. According to Murdiono, vocabulary is one of language aspects beside grammar and pronunciation, which functions as a tool to support the ability to communicate in English. Based on definition, it can be concluded that vocabulary is list of words, which function as tool to communicate, and it is used in written and spoken language.
Vocabulary is one of the language components, which has to be mastered by the students in learning a new language. The students will get some difficulties in using English if they are lack of vocabulary. According to Hahn Cora, Vocabulary is the third component in English language element. The language element consists of phonology (including spelling, stressing and intonation) list or collection of words arranged in alphabetical order and explained, a dictionary or lexicon, either of a whole language, a single work or author, a branch of science or the like a wordbook, grammar and vocabulary.
Vocabulary has a big role in language everyone who wants to master English well must master vocabulary well. Mastering vocabulary is the first step to master English skill, but many of students do not be able to master it. The teacher must teach them the words they need. So, the teachers know the words which the students want use in daily. Jeremy harmer stated that “we should ensure that our students are aware of the vocabulary they need for their level and that they can use the words which they want to use”. The most vital aspects in mastering language are how to apply the word sufficiently and correctly. This is the basic key for someone who wants to learn language successfully. Vocabulary is an important aspect in language learning. Without having it, one cannot express his/her ideas to others and cannot communicate each other.
- The Importance of Vocabulary
After having an understanding on the definitions of vocabulary in previous section, the writer tries to discus about the importance of vocabulary learning. Vocabulary plays an important role because it appears every language skills. Many experienced teachers know how important the vocabulary is. Krakow agrees, “Communication oriented the most presses concern for the learners are the need to master an educational foreign language vocabulary”.
Vocabulary building is important in any language learning. She realizes how important the mastery of vocabulary is, without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed as David Wilkins stated that “If you spend most of your time studying grammar, your English will not improve very much. You will see most improvement if you learn more words and expression. You can say very little with grammar, but you can say almost anything with words”. Particularly for people who study English as a foreign language as stated in the Collier-McMillan International” Once a student has mastered the fundamental grammatical pattern of a language, his/ her next task is to master its vocabulary that he needs.
Nobody ever learns all the words in any language. We know and use the words that suit our particular purposes and we continue to learn new words as long as we live”.
It is clear enough that everybody who learns a language as a foreign language is hoped to know and master vocabulary to improve his or her skill in writing, speaking, listening, and reading. Vocabulary becomes a major problem in learning English, teachers of Junior High school emphasizes on this matter earlier. In teaching vocabulary, the teacher generally teaches new words taken from all reading text. It means that she integrates vocabulary with text. This integration will lead to integrative lesson plan. In learning foreign language depends very much on the mastery of vocabulary. Without sufficient vocabulary of the target language, the students face many difficulties in developing the language skills
- Improving Vocabulary
Learning vocabulary is one of the first steps of learning a second language, yet one never reaches the last step of vocabulary acquisition. Whether in one’s native language or a second language, the acquisition of new vocabulary is a continuous process. According to scientist, many methods such as memorization and keyword method can help one acquire new vocabulary. However, the students need to develop specific strategies for vocabulary learning during their language studies.
Some words cannot be easily linked through association or other methods. When a word in the second language is phonologically or visually similar to a word in the native language, one often assumes it also shares similar meanings. Though this is frequently the case, it is not always true. When facing with a false cognate, memorization and repetition are the keys to mastery. If a second language learner relies solely on word associations to learn new vocabulary, that person will have a very difficult time in mastering false cognates.
Increasing one’s vocabulary can increase our ability to learn. Bromley states that the following can improve our vocabulary, they are:
- Learn new words that have been recently added to the dictionary.
- Create words that you believe will be added to the dictionary. Find them in a text document (such as newspaper or spoken) and examine how they have been used.
- For words that are overused, substitute them with different words.
- Learn commonly used prefixes, suffixes, and roots.
- Connect new words to your existing knowledge and experiences.
- Define the word, use it in a sentence, and draw it.
- Because 70% of the most commonly used words have numerous meanings, it is necessary to apply context when trying to understand meanings.
- Break down syllables in words to help understand meaning.
- Keep a record of new words and their definitions. Also, use them in a sentence.