Implementation Learner Centered Approach. Berikut ini Media Referensi akan berbagi panduan atau contoh skripsi Bab I yang berjudul “Implementation Of Learner Centered Approach In Teaching Bilingual Classes” (A Case Study At Smpn 6 Banda Aceh). Seperti biasanya disini hanya ada panduan Bab I, untuk Bab selanjutnya bisa kontak admin bagi anda yang membutuhkannya.
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Two main issues, including learner-centered instruction and bilingual teaching and learning, have been concertedly deliberated and implemented in some parts in Aceh Province. The learner-centered approach as opposed to teacher-centered approach has been introduced so as to response the pressure on presetting better quality of learning process and outcomes, whereas the bilingual learning is basically intended to enable students to use foreign languages, especially English, both oral and written form. In this way, students will in turn be able to communicate in the widely used language and use learning resources that are mostly written in English. In short, both the approach and the bilingual learning are important for better quality of education.
The learner-centered approach, which is rooted in the constructivism theory, has received a wide-spread acceptance in many countries in recent years, due its more powerful and more effective education practice (Phungpol, 2005: 35). Sanacore (2008:13) found that using a learner-centered learning approach successfully changed the reluctant learners to inspired learners. Fulcher (2005:23) found that the use of a learner-centered approach was effective in improving learning outcomes in interdisciplinary-based institutions. Another education practitioner, Baim also found positive impacts of using a learner-centered approach in enhancing students’ knowledge of marketing research principles (Liyod, 2001:21).
This approach has also been introduced in Indonesia since its reform of its education system from centralization to decentralization. It is clearly seen in the school-based curriculum implemented, locally called KTSP (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan) that emphasizes the PAKEM (Pembelajaran Aktif, Kreatif, Efektif and Menyenangkan) approach in teaching process (BSNP, 2006). Thousands school teachers under the control of both MONE ( Ministry of National Education) and MORA (Ministry of Religious Affairs) across the nation have been trained with this approach and still many more are awaiting for being trained in order to be able to use it in their classrooms.
In order to support the implementation of KTSP and bilingual learning in the field, the teachers of SMPN 6 Banda Aceh have been trained with the learner-centered approach and English for teaching and learning purpose since 2009. These kinds of training have been undertaken several times in recent months, aimed at equipping them with the knowledge and skills on how to develop and implement the instruction that characterizes the learner-centered approach and how to use English as a medium of instruction. However, it has not yet been evaluated how the teachers perceive and implement the approach at classroom levels.In curriculum perspective, teachers who have been trained on curriculum development should be assessed how they perceive the formal or written curriculum, because how they implement it in the classroom is greatly influenced by their perceptions (Akken, 1999:15 and Nieveen, 1999:25). If it is wrongly perceived, what is operated in the classroom will be wrong. Therefore, curriculum, according to Akken and Nieveen, should be assessed its validity, practicality and effectiveness. Validity is divided in two types, content validity is whether the curriculum has substantive components, such as competencies, goals, indicators, etc. Construct validity is whether all these components are consistently linked one another. Practicality is whether the curriculum is practical or usable in teaching and learning process. Effectiveness means to what extent the students experience and attained as expected.However, this research intends to focus on perception, implementation and problems of the learner-centered approach by using English as the medium of instruction as a part of the bilingual education program at SMPN 6 Banda Aceh. Given this study, the quality of the teachers’ teaching design and implementation will be better, and implementation will be better and the problems faced will be identified.
Other studies focused merely on the bilingual education in foreign countries. Ervin-Tripp (1974, as cited in Rodriguez & Higgins, 2005:35) found that the students often made errors in the second language because they tended to follow the grammar rules of their languages. Similar findings founded by Krashen and Biber (1988, as cited in Rodriguez & Higgins, 2005:32) come up with conclusion that ease with students attains the academic achievement in a second language is directly related to the strength of their native language achievement. And (Collier, 1989 as cited in Rodriguez & Higgins, 2005:40) found that students with sufficient schooling in their native language become more proficient in English much faster than the students with no schooling in their first language. Due to these results, Rodriguez & Higgins (2005:5) concluded “The better a child’s literacy skills are in his or her first language, the more likely it is that the child will become literate in the second language.”
For Aceh context, the study on the bilingual education should be conducted as many as possible in order to improve the implementation process and results of bilingual education that has been implemented in some school, such as Fatih Bilingual School, SMUN 10 Fajar Harapan, SMAN 1 Banda Aceh and is expected to be implemented in all schools in the future. The bilingual education is believed to be able to support the strategy used in Indonesia to deal with global competition (Arnyana, 2008:18). In this globalized era, English has been more and more used in all sectors. Accordingly, people in Aceh will have to be able to adapt to the new changes and needs in order to survive in this competitive era.
1.2 Problems of Study
This study intends to explore:
1. How is the implementation of the learner-centered approach by using English as the medium of instruction at SMPN 6 Banda Aceh?
2. What are the problems encountered by the instructors in implementing the learner-centered approach by using English?
1.3 Scope of Study
This study was limited to the learner-centered approach at the four levels of the curriculum representations implemented by the teachers at SMPN 6 Banda Aceh. Accordingly, it focused on perception of teachers; the preparation documents, such as syllabi and lesson plans, and the problems faced by the teaching staff members in both preparation and implementation. This study may apply to the bilingual classes where English is used as a medium of instruction since the teachers involved as the samples of this study teach their lesson by using English.
1.4 Aims of Study
This study was intended to obtain the following things:
1. To look at how teachers implement the learner-centered approach curriculum
2. To find out what problems the teachers at SMPN 6 Banda Aceh encounter with regard to planning and conducting bilingual classes teaching by using the learner-centered approach.
1.5 Significance of Study
This study plays significant role in improving the ways of teachers plan and implement their teaching. All findings will become recommendations for SMPN 6 Banda Aceh top management for generating new policies and strategies in improving the quality of teaching and learning process there (e.g. through regular in-service training) and in turn improving the quality of outputs. More importantly, the best practices of learner-centered teaching at SMPN 6 Banda Aceh will be used to replicate for others.
1.6 Operational Definition
Learner-centered teaching refers to teaching process activities that are centered or learners, not or teachers (Hall & Hord, 2006:26). It requires applying its principles, ranging from cognitive to individual differences principles (APA, 1997:14). Accordingly, learners are given equal opportunity to be engaged as much as possible in all activities during the learning process. The process of learning is facilitated by teachers.
Case study means “A study characterized by an investigation of a single individual, group event, institution or culture” (Wiersma & Jurs, 2004:487). In this study, the application of the learner-centered by a group of teachers at SMPN 6 Banda Aceh was investigated.
1.7 Population and Sample
Since the number of the teachers of SMPN 6 Banda Aceh teaching bilingual classes was only 18, consisting of 8 English teachers, 4 math teachers, 4 biology teachers, and 2 physics teachers. Academically this study is classified as a case study. In selecting those teachers, a consultation with the school principal was done to determine 18 representative teachers to better highlight the problems of this study. One thing is important to note that all these teachers had been trained with the concept and praxis of learner-centered approach.
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