Education is a conscious and deliberate effort to create an atmosphere of learning so that students are actively developing the potential for him to have the spiritual power of religion, self-control, personality, intelligence, social attitudes, and skills needed him, the people of the nation and state (Education 2001). Quality education today still looks less than satisfactory. The size of the quality of education can be seen on the academic achievement of their students, in the form of test scores, and can be seen from the results of study on the effect of daily life.
Therefore, to improve the quality of education can be started from an increase in academic achievement or student learning outcomes in schools. Educational success is determined by many factors, among which is the factor of the teachers, the teachers who have skills in the learning process, which is tightly linked to the ability to choose a learning model that can provide success in students. One of the ways that teachers can do is to adopt a cooperative learning model. Keywords: Improving the quality of education, cooperative learning
Learning is essentially the activities of teachers in teaching students, which means making or making students in learning conditions. Students in the learning conditions can be observed and examined through the activities undertaken, the attention focused, enthusiastic, ask, answer, comment, presentations, discussions, try, suspect or discover. In the implementation of teacher learning need to devise a proper strategy that is the way teachers manage the whole process of learning.
Teaching is not just the issue of telling and learning is not an automatic consequence of pouring information into the minds of students. The learning process is not actually mere memorization activities. Much of what we remember will disappear within a few hours. To remember what has been taught, students have to process it or understand it. A teacher can not necessarily pour anything into the minds of the students, because they themselves had to organize what they hear and see into a meaningful unity. Learning requires mental involvement and students’ own work, explanation and reenactment alone will not produce optimal learning results.
When learners passively or simply accept lessons from a teacher, there is a tendency to quickly forget the lessons that have been given. To remember what has been taught, students have to process it or understand it. Students learn only 10% of what is read, 20% of what is heard, 30% of what was seen, 50% of what is seen and heard, 70% of what is said, and 90% of what said and done.
This suggests that if taught with many lectures, the students’ level of understanding is only 20%. But otherwise, if students are asked to learn actively, the level of understanding students can reach about 90%. Orientation in the context of teaching and learning geared to the development of students in learning activities. Overview of the development of the activity is reflected in the efforts of teachers.
Learning is student activities in building meaning or understanding. Thus the teacher should encourage students to use the authority or the right to construct ideas. The responsibility of learning is on the student, but the teacher is responsible for creating a situation which encourages initiatives, potential, motivation and responsibility of students to learn. The main task of the teacher is no longer convey knowledge, but rather to give understanding, guiding them to learn on their own. Teachers are required to be able to develop the potential of students in order to perform its tasks in accordance with the level of active development. It required a conducive learning conditions that allow all students to feel excited and challenged to perform learning activities so as to improve academic achievement.
Basically all children have the potential to achieve competence or success. All the potential it just might be able to develop when students free of fear, saturation, and thrilling. Therefore, teachers need to strive for a learning process enjoyable process. One of the ways that teachers can do is to adopt a cooperative learning model.
Learning Cooperative (Cooperative Learning)
Koopeartif learning derived from the cooperative, which means doing something together to help each other as a group or a team. This learning model emphasizes social aspects of learning. Therefore, cooperative learning involves grouping technique in which students work focused on the learning objectives together in small groups which generally consisted of 4-5 people. Cooperative groups is structured in such a way characterized by heterogeneous views of gender, socio-economic background, or ability.
Essentially the same cooperative learning with group work. Therefore, many teachers who say that there is nothing strange in cooperative learning because they consider have regular use. Although it occurs in the form of cooperative learning groups, but not all of the working group said cooperative learning. Learning kooperati concerned with grouping technique in which students work focused on shared learning goals. Utilization of small group learning allows students to work together to maximize their learning and learning with other members in the group so as to bring about common understanding among the participants learning itself.
Characteristics and Purpose Cooperative Learning
Cooperative learning model characterized by the task structure, the structure of goals, and reward structures that are different from the conventional model. Task structure refers to two things, namely learning how it’s done and the type of activities carried out by the students in the classroom. Structure destination characterized by positive interdependence between students, meaning that the success of a student only and only if the other students in the group also managed.
Most of cooperative learning has the following characteristics:
- Students learn in a cooperative group learning to master the material. Task group members is a group of their friends to help each other to achieve mastery learning.
- The award system is more oriented to groups rather than individuals.
Basic elements of Cooperative Learning
In using cooperative learning model, there are some basic concepts that need to be considered and pursued by teachers, namely:
a. Positive interdependence. Students should feel that they need each other. Juice of this interdependence will encourage students to motivate each other to achieve optimal results. Compactness arises because they feel the keasatuan bound in the responsibility for the success of the group.
- Face-to-face interaction. On this occasion all the members of the group can be a source of learning, so that learning resources be varied. Face interaction can enrich students’ horizons for their contributions and suggestions of each member of the group will influence the thinking of the group.
- Individual accountability. Besides having responsibility for the friends in the group, the students are also required other responsibilities to itself. Value group average based on the learning outcomes of all its members, therefore all members of the group members for assessment sumangan group called individual accountability.
- Ability to establish interpersonal relationships. In cooperative learning, Tanggang sense, mutual respect, be polite, do not dominate others, criticize and not criticize the idea of personal friends, must be fostered. Teachers teach and encourage the emergence of the social skills in order to work in cooperative learning groups effectively.
Cooperative learning procedures in principle consists of five stages:
- Present the objectives and motivate learners
Some experts argue that tell goal at the beginning of learning is not to be done, however, because learning is an internal process, so if students know the purpose of learning to do, they can redirect internal processes so as to facilitate the achievement of objectives. Delivering the purpose can be done in an integrated manner while conducting motivation, and performed in a way that meets the motivational elements such as attractive, relevant to the needs and so on.
- Presenting information
The information presented at this stage is not really a subject matter the students will learn, because the subject matter will be studied by the students through cooperative activities. The information presented is more directed to the rules agreed, cooperative procedures to be performed as well as the consequences that will be received by the students when doing certain activities are recommended.
- Organize students into study groups
At this stage the teacher divides the students into groups of heterogeneous cooperative groups of 4-5 people each.
- Guiding group work and study
At this stage the teacher went around the group to check for possible problems experienced students, conduct feedback, guidance members, and remind students to always build social skills.
- To evaluate and reward
Evaluation is done in the process with the strategy test, quiz, or do a team game, and give awards to groups that have the highest growth scores. Scores obtained from the group’s progress scores developmental contribution of each member of the group.
The excellence Cooperative Learning
When compared with conventional still learning, cooperative learning has several advantages, namely:
- Provide opportunities for students to express and discuss a vision, experience, gained through teaching and learning to cooperate in defining the direction of the view of the group.
- It can achieve brightness in learning.
To train students to have the skills of thinking and social skills.
- Develop a true joy of learning.
Eliminate selfishness or self-centered and egocentric.
- Increasing academic ability.
- Establishment of friendly relations between fellow students and teachers.
Application of Cooperative Learning Effectiveness Of Study Results
Learning outcomes are a result of the learning process by using a measurement tool, in the form of tests compiled in a planned, well written test, an oral test and the test works. Learning outcomes measured by standard valuation techniques.
In general, the factors that affect learning outcomes can be divided into two categories: external factors and internal factors.
- Internal Factors
Internal factors are factors that originate from within the students. These factors include physiological and psychological. Physiological aspects are aspects related to students’ physical condition and psychological aspects are aspects of intelligence, aptitude, interest and motivation of students.
- External factors
External factors are factors that come from outside the individual and can affect the results of individual learning. External factors are of two kinds, namely; social environmental factors such as parents, teachers, and classmates and non-social factors such as facilities and infrastructure.
As for the external factors that influence the cooperative learning is the presence of teachers who serve as mentors, and classmates to share their opinions by way of discussion. Through the study of contemporaries and under the guidance of teachers, the process of acceptance and understanding will more easily and quickly to the material being studied.
As for the effectiveness of cooperative learning on student learning outcomes are:
a. Brain work actively
With cooperative learning (cooperative learning) students are actively encouraged to learn both inside and outside the classroom, they are given the opportunity to choose the strategy of what they want and they also have a responsibility to master the lesson to be presented or taught to his friend. When students learn actively, meaning they dominate the learning activity. By this they actively use the brain, either to find the main idea of the subject matter, solve problems or to apply what they had learned into existing problems in real life.
- Maximum learning results
With cooperative learning (cooperative learning) students can learn actively, inside and outside the classroom and they have a responsibility to discuss and teach the subject matter to another friend, thus encouraging them to study harder either independently or in groups. Thus the learning outcomes will be maximized.
Research shows that giving questions to the students or tell them to discuss the newly supplied material capable of increasing the value of the evaluation with a significant increase.
- Not easy to forget the subject matter
When learners passively or simply accept from the teacher, there is a tendency to quickly forget what has been given. And in cooperative learning (cooperative learning) and invited these students to be active in the learning process both inside and outside the classroom. Thus the study will produce lasting results.
- The learning process fun
Learning Cooperative (Cooperative Learning) is a learning strategy that invites students to learn actively. With this active learning students are invited to participate in all of the learning process, not only mentally but also physically involved. In this way usually learners will feel a pleasant atmosphere.
- The brain can process information well
The brain will not be able to process the incoming information that the brain was not in a condition on, the brain requires something that can be used to connect the new information is taught with the information that has been owned. If learning is passive, the brain will not be able to connect the new information with old information. Furthermore, the brain needs a few steps to be able to store information. Steps that can be a repetition of information, questioning the information or teach it to people. In order to improve the results of learning, cooperative learning (cooperative learning) is one strategy that can be used by teachers / tutors in the learning process. With cooperative learning (cooperative learning) students will learn actively. When students learn by actively they will feel fun learning environment so that learning outcomes can be maximized.
That’s all and thank