Ralat: Artikel increasing-students-reading-ability sudah ada, & sudah admin rubah mohon maaf. Apakabar sahabat Referensi, kembali update artikel seperti biasa, pada post ini masih berkaitan dengan Skripsi, ya biar sesuai dikit sama judul blog hehe. Namun berikut ini yaitu salah satu contoh skripsi bahasa inggris juga yang Bab I judulnya “The Effectiveness Of English Comics Teaching As A Medium Of Story Retelling).
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
English is an important means of communication, which is used by many countries in this world. It plays an important role as an international language. This is why the Indonesian government chooses English as the first foreign language to be taught in schools (Ramelan, 1992:3). English is introduced as a compulsory subject to be taught from the first year of Junior High School up to the twelfth year of students and as a local content subject in Elementary school.
The writer intends to discuss one of the many problems connected with the English learning. The English learning problems can take place both at home and at school. The teacher and the students are different, and therefore, we might find different motivations for learning as well. At school, the problems may appear when the class consists of a big number of students.
The real problem is when the students follows the final examination (UN), For students the English Lesson is very difficult, because there are not only written test but also listening test and data based from announcement of Final Examination (UN) 11.499 (17%) student in Aceh can’t pass the final examination and 22% students in Aceh Besar can’t pass the Final examination, most of them failed in the English subject (kompasnews.2010.3:7).
In addition, writer found something wrong with student ability in the English lesson. They have learn English for 4 years but why most of them cannot speak in English language? If we look at their score in semester examination, their average score are high. May be this is a problem that Zamroni said as Indonesian education problem as transfer “the dead knowledge” and the curriculum full with knowledge and theory (Zamroni 2001:2-5).
Many of student in SMAN 1 Baitussalam master the theory better than practice. For example in speaking, they may have the knowledge of how to speak but in practice they find difficulties. They are lack self confidence. To build their confidence, students need more practice so that teachers are suggested to create and use interesting methods.
One of such methods is story retelling. Generally, story retelling is liked by the students because they like stories. It is also an appropriate method for the students at their age (sugiarto 2006:12). In order to make story retelling more interesting, good media are needed. The term ‘media’ is defined by Brown: J. W, Richard B. L, Fred F: H (1969: 2-3) as tools or the physical materials used by a teacher to facilitate the instruction. According to Gerlach and Elly (1980: 245), to select the appropriate media, the teacher must consider the characteristics of the students, which are directly related to the learning process such as verbal proficiencies, visual and audio perception skills.
Other factors which also ought to be considered in media selection come from our instructional system model, that is, the organization of groups, the time available and the space in which the media will be used (Gerlach and Elly: 255). Comics is one of the many media to teach story retelling. Comics are an art form using a series of static images in fixed sequence.
One authentic material that has been explored over the past few years is the comic strip or comic book (Davis, 1990:52). Before this form of educational entertainment emerged to the foreground, it was often believed (and still is by some social critics) that “comic books were so educationally unsound that their use would lead to mental stagnation (Ellman, 1979:24; MacGregor, 1996:7).
The writer assumes that comics is a kind of text that will attract students’ interests and stimulate them to enjoy story retelling. As Walt Disney says, animation, an element of comics, offers a medium of story telling and visual entertainment which can bring pleasure and information to people of all ages everywhere in the world. Although the comics is written in English, the students of Senior High School will enjoy reading it for the following reasons:
- Comics is a light and easy-to-understand reading material. It has pictures and contains short conversations in “bubbles” of speech. The vocabulary used there can be inferred from both pictures and the context, so that the students do not waste their time to look up the meaning of difficult words in a dictionary.
- The sentence structures, which are used in comics, are simple. The structure enable students to understand what the sentence means. (Taufik, 2006: 3). The writer chooses the stories of Donald Duck on consideration that nearly all the students may have been familiar with the characters of Donald Duck from the cartoon TV shows or its comics in Indonesia as they read them at home to entertain themselves. The writer believes that by giving comics as a medium in story retelling; the Senior High School students will obtain some advantages as stated below:
- It will stimulate their motivation and interest in story retelling
- It increases their knowledge and enriches their vocabulary
- It gives students enjoyment in story retelling
1.2 Statements of the Problems
The problems that will be discussed in this study are:
- How is the effectiveness of English comics teaching as a medium of story retelling ?
- Is comics effective as a medium of teaching story retelling?
- To what extent does the English comics teaching using story retelling influence the students’ achievement?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study can be stated as follows:
- To find out whether there is any significant difference in the improvement
of students’ mastery in story retelling using comics and without using comics.
- To identify the effectiveness of English comics as a medium of teaching story retelling.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The result of this study can contribute some benefits to students and teachers. Here are the benefits:
It may motivate students to improve their interest in learning English since they will find out that speaking, especially story retelling, not always difficult to learn. Their improvement of interest in learning English will help them master English well.
The research findings are expected to be used as a consideration in teaching story retelling in the classroom.
The precise definition of comics remains a subject of debate, with some scholars insisting that their printed nature is crucial to the definition, or that they should be defined by the interdependence of image and text. Others define the medium in terms of its sequential art. According to Scott McCloud (1993:76), comics are juxtaposed pictorial and other images in deliberate sequence, intended to convey information and/or to produce an aesthetic response in the viewer. By this definition, single panel illustrations are not comics, but are instead cartoons.
Comics are an art form using a series of static images in fixed sequence.Written text is often incorporated. The two most common forms of comics are comic strips (as appear in newspaper) and comic books (also popularly called “manga” when referring to Japanese comic books). Comic strips are serial comicsthat are published in a newspaper. Whereas comic books are collections of stories that have pictures and consist of one or more title and theme. They are called comics or comic books in Indonesia. “Comics” in the UK are most likely to be a reference to comic books – the term “comic book” only became popular in the UK as a reference to import US comic books.
Nana Sudjana (2002: 64) defines comics as a kind of cartoon form expressing character and playing a story in sequences of closely related drawing and designed to give fun to the readers. It contains several continued stories. The
stories are brief and interesting, completed with action. Comics also appear in newspaper and book.
- Nashir (2002: 22) says that comics, generally, is a pictorial story in magazines, newspaper, or books that is usually easy to understand and funny. From the various definitions above, it can be concluded that comic is an art work which has sequence of stories about characteristics, events in picture form which can be humorous, mysterious, etc.
The writer chooses the stories of Donald Duck on consideration that nearly all the students may have been familiar with the characters of Donald Duck from the cartoon TV shows or its comics in Indonesia as they read them at home to entertain themselves.
Senior high school students or teenagers are categorized into adolescents learners. In this period, teenagers like to spend their time for hanging around, friends, peers, and often disruptive behavior in class. However, they have a great capacity in learning if the teacher can engage them.
The characteristics of adolescents learners according to Harmer (2001:38-39) are:
- They seem to be less lively and humorous than adults.
- Identity has to be forged among classmates and friends; peer approval may be considerably more important for the student than the attention of the teacher.
- They would be much happier if such problem did not exist.
- They may be disruptive in class.
- They have a great potential creativity and a passionate commitment to things that interest them.
Based on the explanation above, the writer concludes that the characteristics of adolescents are period of change, new experiences, learning, instability and the most trying times in life.
Achievement is the act of achieving or performing; an obtaining by exertion; successful performance; accomplishment; as the achievement of his object. (Collins English dictionary).
To observe the students’ speaking achievements, the writer and the teacher asked the students to come forward and retell the story in 3-5 minutes individually. Then, the writer and the teacher scored the student’s speaking ability using the rating scale modified from David P Harris and Walter Bartz. There are five components in scoring the speaking test. First component is pronunciation, the second component is grammar, the third component is vocabulary, the fourth component is fluency, and the fifth component is content.( Harris, 1969: 84 and Walter Bartz, 1983: 150).
1.5.4 Story Retelling
Storytelling is the art of using language, vocalization, and/or physical movement and gesture to reveal the elements and images of a story to a specific, live audience. A central, unique aspect of storytelling is its reliance on the audience to develop specific visual imagery and detail to complete and co-create the story (Eldbarri,1997:12). Story retelling, as part of speaking activities in class, is an effective teaching tool that enables students to focus on story structure.
Story retelling encourages students to think about stories as they retell them. It helps them learn to tell stories in detail and in sequence. Children develop favorite stories early in their lives and want to hear the same story over and over again. Story retelling is a common human activity which can be enjoyable, especially if the material is interesting.
Story retelling is a procedure that enables a child to play a large role in reconstructing stories. It underlines both social and academic development. When they retell a story, they use language for an extended period of time. They construct the story. This activity increases their language development.
Story retelling can play an important role in performance-based assessment of speaking. It prepares students for real-life tasks such as selecting, organizing, and conveying essential information (http:ccvi.wrcervw.org/ccvi/22-pubs/newsletters/winter1997-weavingauthenticassessment/story-retelling-v2 No.1.html). Here, students are required to do most of the talking, consider what they have read, and formulate their thoughts to express a true understanding of what they have read.
1.6 Limitation of the Study
The writer limits this study by the following limitation:
- The comic used for this study is taken from 17th edition The Very Best of
Donald Duck Comics (Bilingual Edition). The result of this study can be generalized to the studies using all kinds of other comics except the 7th edition of the best of Donald Duck comics.
- This research is only conducted to the 11th year students of SMAN 1 Baitussalam, Aceh Besar in the academic year of 2010/2011. This study cannot be applied to look at students achievements at the advanced level since the population and samples of this study are classified as beginners. Based on the students proficiency, they are considered beginner because the following reasons:
- speech consist of some inappropriate pronunciation
- Occasionally make grammatical and/or word order errors, however obscure.
- Frequently uses the wrong words( Wallter bartz, 1983:150)
1.7 Methodology of Research
This work is based on field research. In the field research, the writer carries out the observation at SMAN 1 Baitussalam. The writer divided the students into two class. The class 1A as experimental group and 1B as control group. The writer will teach the class IA the story retelling by using comic and I will teach group B the story retelling by using story based on text book.
The writer gives pretest and post test. In addition interviews will be conducted the English teacher. After scoring of such test, the writer will calculate Coefficient Correlation. This will enable this study to look at the relation ship between the comics use and the students achievements.
An experiment involves the comparison of the effects of a particular treatment with that of a different treatment or of no treatment. In a simple conventional experiment reference is usually made to an experimental group and to a control group (Best, 1981:59). In other words, an experimental research tries to observe the cause-and-effect relation. Best (1981:57) states that experimental research provides a systematic and logical method for answering the question, if this is done under carefully controlled conditions, what will happen?
Basically, the strategies and the steps in conducting experimental research are similar to the strategies and the steps in conducting research in general. The steps are:
- Reading literature sources to get the problems of the research.
- Identifying and stating the problems.
- Determining the limitation of terms and variable, hypothesis, and supported theory.
- Designing the experiment.
- Conducting the experiment.
- Choosing the appropriate data that can represent the experiment groupand the control group.
- Finding out the significant relation to get the result of the experiment using an appropriate technique. (Arikunto, 2003: 275-276).
1.8 Outline of the Study
This thesis is divided into five chapters. An overview of this thesis can be highlighted in detail as the following: chapter I, presents the general background of the study, reasons for choosing the topic, statements of the problem, the objectives of the study, significance of the study, limitation of the study, and outline of the study. Chapter II discusses the general concept of comics, history of comics, the use of comics in teaching, definition of story retelling, application of comics as stimuli to retell story fluently, and experimental research. Chapter III reviews the method of investigation and data collection of the experiment. This chapter deals with the subject of the study, variable, research design, instrument, the try out, condition of the test, scoring system and method of data analysis. Chapter IV presents the conclusions and the suggestions given based on the result of the writer’s experiment.
Sekian dan terimakasih.