Berikut ini merupakan panduan ataupun contoh skripsi bahasa Inggris yang berjudul “Teaching English Vocabulary By Using Game To The Student”. (An Experimental Study at Elementary School No. 71 Banda Aceh). Namun pada artikel ini Media Referensi hanya menulis bab I, untuk bab selanjutnya bagi anda yang membutuhkannya silahkan contak kami.
1.1. Background of the Study
English is an important means of communication, which is used by many countries in this world. It plays an important role as an international language. This is why the Indonesian government chooses English as the first foreign language to be taught in schools (Ramelan, 1992:3). The objectives of teaching English as stated in the 2004 competence-based curriculum among others is to develop the students’ ability to communicate in English through the four skills; listening, speaking, reading and writing.
Learning English means learning its skills namely listening, speaking, reading and writing. To master these four skills students do not only learn grammar and pronunciation but also they must have much vocabulary. The students are unable to use the language unless they have enough vocabulary. As Celce (n.d. 242) states “vocabulary is fundamental even in the earliest stages of the acquisition of that language”. It can be comprehended that teaching vocabulary cannot be neglected by every English teacher because vocabulary is one of the important aspects in English. In this case, vocabulary should be taught at elementary school.
Teaching vocabulary is clearly more than just presenting new words, it also includes a decision that words should be taught based on how frequent they are used by speaker of the language. The words commonly used are those a teacher should teach first.
At SDN 71 Banda Raya-Banda Aceh, English has been taught for 5 years and the purpose of the English teaching is as a local content subject. In reality, English is a foreign language in Indonesia, students learn English after they acquire and establish their first and second language, the local language and Indonesian respectively (GBPP, 1994). In teaching-learning process, the curriculum also plays an essential role for the teachers to carry out the students’ success at the end of their studying. SDN 71 Banda Raya-Banda Aceh also has its own stated in the curriculum related to English teaching that is: “The students are expected to master 10 words in each meeting” It means that they must be able to master 240 words in one semester.
In relation to the problems of teaching young learners, the researcher previewed some constraints experienced by other researchers. First, Riyadi (2008) founds that most English teachers do not apply appropriate teaching technique when teaching English to the students of SDN 02. Pablengan. Matesih. Second, Agnes (2008:45) writes some conclusion about her research finding at SDN Triyagan 2 Sukoharjo that (1) the teacher is not creative to use media as aids teaching; (2) the teacher only gives a little time to practice in pronouncing the word correctly, whereas a little time to practice cannot created the accurate pronunciation, especially for beginners; (3) the technique of the teaching vocabulary that the teacher uses seems ineffective for the students. It does not give the students great motivation to learn. In other words, students are passive in learning vocabulary.
From the result of interview with some students of the sixth grade of SDN 71 Banda Raya it can be found that the limited vocabulary is their problem in learning English. It is difficult for them to memorize the meaning and the pronunciation of the words, in addition they are not interested in studying English because they feel bored with the teaching technique. Usually the teacher taught vocabulary by translating at the beginning of the lesson or translating of the material containing new words or glossaries at the end. The teacher never used self defining context, definition in the target language, opposite, picture, dramatization, and reality as word to a class. Therefore, to solve this problem the writer intends to do an experimental teaching vocabulary by using games, especially labeling game. It would be expected to help and to motivate the students in mastering vocabulary easily and actively.
With the current analysis of communication in teaching language, using games appear to hold a solution for many teachers. Here, the writer chooses games as a media to facilitate students’ method of learning, as we know children learn while playing games. Through well-planed games, learners can practice and internalize vocabulary, grammar and structures extensively. Play and competition that are provided by games enhance the motivation of the students. They also reduce the stress in the classroom. While playing games, the students’ attention is on the massage, not on the language. In a way, students acquire language unconsciously since their whole attention is engaged by the activity (Kim, creative games for language class. English Teaching Forum. 1995).
Mikheyeva (1999:25) states that games support the abilities of everyone during the lesson reducing fatigue. Children are equal while playing. Even weak pupils can catch up it. Moreover a weak pupil could be the first in the game because language material is assimilated easily during the games and this enables them to become more responsible and independent in the learning process as well as positive to language learning.
Most of people will agree that if learning can be made enjoyable it would force them to learn more, by performing language games, the students have enjoyment or fun which help them remember new vocabulary items easily and excitedly (Gasser and Walman.1979) in Celce-Murcia. This idea is supported by Latka Gajer (1984:85) Klippel (1990:32) all students and especially the beginner, like language games. Further, Krassel (1986:61) considers that language game should be a part of every foreign language course. Then, language game is strong motivating device. Sanchez (1982:24) points out those students like English and they think that language game is “do interesting that they try hard to gain more points for their teams in that activity”.
There are many ways to teach English to young learners such as by using flashcard, puppet, game, movie, song, etc. By applying any of this technique, specially game in teaching English vocabulary.
In teaching English, we find many useful methods that can be applied in the classroom. According to Hubbord, et. al. (1984:41), “Method itself is a set of procedures or a collection of techniques used in systematic ways, which is hoped to result in efficient learning”. Every teaching method has its own technique. In addition, Anthony (1992:13) clarifies that “the technique is the implementation that actually takes place in the classroom”.
However, the method used in the classroom depends on the purpose of the teacher who uses it in the process of teaching. Vocabulary is one of the language aspects and plays a very important role in the development of language skills, as Mackey says (1965:82), “words are medium of communication, even communication to oneself. We think with words, we write with them and neither thinking nor writing can be efficient unless the words are accurate”. It can be comprehended that having a good common of vocabulary enables us to use the language.
For this study, the researcher conducted an experimental study at SDN 71 Banda Raya-Banda Aceh. The school is one of the favorite schools in Banda Aceh offering English to its students first year up to sixth year. This research entitled Teaching English Vocabulary by Using Games to the Students.
1.2. Research Problem
Considering what of the writer has discussed in the background, the problems of the study can be stated as the following:
1. Do students who are taught vocabulary by using games perform better than those who are taught vocabulary without using game?
2. What constraints do students and teachers face in learning and teaching vocabulary?
1.3. Research Objective
This study is intended to find out:
1. The students who are taught vocabulary by using games will perform better than students who are taught vocabulary without using games.
2. The constraints faced by students and teacher in teaching and learning English vocabulary.
In experimental research, hypothesis is one of role that must be followed by researcher in beginning the research. Borg (1987:84) stated there are two forms of hypotheses, namely, directional and null hypothesis. The directional hypothesis is a relationship between the variables being studied or a difference between experimental treatments that the researcher expects to emerge, while null hypothesis is that there is no relationship exist between the variable studied or no difference will be found between experimental treatments. In this experimental study the researcher hypothesizes that:
1. There will be a better performance for the students who are taught vocabulary by using games than those who are taught without using games.
2. There is no constraint faced by students and teachers in teaching and learning English vocabulary.
1.5. Significance of the Study
Teaching English vocabulary through games is a good indicator of achievement of capability to the students at elementary school. And it will give new atmosphere to the students in mastering English through games.
The findings of the present study are expected to give two kinds of benefit, they are practical and theoretical benefits. They are:
1. Practical Significance
Practical significance would be useful for teachers, students and also for education administrators.
a) This research can support the teachers to see and evaluate current teaching practice, ways of improving the present condition of teaching English and to help them to solve the problem in teaching learning process.
b) For students will more interesting in learning English vocabulary in the classroom or outside of the classroom.
c) For education administrators it will be a very useful in planning the English teaching program.
2. Theoretical Significance
The result of this study would contribute, support, modify or reject the existing theory of teaching English vocabulary by using game to the students. The result of the study is expected to contribute or to support the existing theory of teaching English vocabulary by using game in the classroom.
1.6. Scope of the Study
A limitation of the scope of the study is necessary in order to be able to analyze the problems related to the topic. In this study, the analysis just focuses on teaching English vocabulary by using game on sixth year students of SDN 71 Banda Raya. Labeling games was used in this study.
1.7. Operational Definition
In order to avoid misperception of the terms in the title of this research the researcher needs to put forward the definition of the following words:
Vocabulary is one of the language components that have to be taught to the students in learning a foreign language. Petty and Jensen (1980: 76) support the idea by stating; “since the knowledge of words and word meaning is essential in both the expressive and receptive aspect of language, vocabulary building is vital to the early language program”. Unfortunately, many students consider learning vocabulary as a tedious job. Because of that, the teacher should look for an effective technique to make learning vocabulary easier, more pleasant, and enjoyable. One of the general components, which have to be mastered well by the students in learning English, is vocabulary. The level of vocabulary should be suitable for their age group or the level of education and meaningful for them to learn.
The definition of game is an activity that you do to have some fun (Hornby, 1995: 486). Games can make the students more focus in learning, because they do not feel that they are forced to learn. Games can lower anxiety, thus making the acquisition of input more likely (Richard-Amato, 1988: 147). They are highly motivating and entertaining, and they can give shy students more opportunity to express their opinion and feelings (Hansen, 1994: 118). They also enable learners to acquire new experiences within a foreign language which are not always possible during a typical lesson. In this study the researcher used labeling game as media in teaching vocabulary.
There are two kinds of labeling game offering in this study, 1) Drop the right word into the right place, the students put the name of something into the suitable place. 2) Arrange the letter, the students make the right word suitable with picture or label by arranging the letter.
The benefit of games are encourage the student to learn English because it is fun and make them want to have experiment, discover and interact with their environment (Lewis,1999: 123) other benefit of games is:
• Games add variation to a lesson and increase motivation by providing plausible incentive to use the target language. For many children between for and twelve years old, especially the youngest, language learning will not be the key motivation factor. Games can provide this stimulus (Lewis,1999). The game context makes the foreign language immediately useful to the children. It brings the target language to life (Lewis, 1999). The games make the reason for speaking plausible even to reluctant children (lewis,1999).
1.8. Organization of the Study
This study was divided into five chapters. Chapter one is an introduction, consisting of background of the study, the hypothesis, significance of the study, scope of the study, and the organization of the study. Chapter two is related with the literature that discusses about the topic. Chapter three, the research methodology is include the location and situation of the place of the study, populations and samples, procedures and measurements. Chapter four is present the result of the study including data analysis and discussions. Chapter five mainly is conclude the conclusion and suggestion.
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